The Recommendations document attempts to distill the findings from the gap analysis performed within GAIA-CLIM as described in the Gaps Assessment and Impacts Document (GAID) and associated online Catalogue of Gaps into a set of high-level actionable priority recommended activities. It is intended to be a high-level accessible document supported by the rich information on gaps collected throughout the project.

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Table: High-level recommendation titles and thematic clustering.

Education and training
Maintain and further develop a workforce competent in EO data characterisation and downstream applications to support Copernicus activities
Non-satellite data quality and availability
Improve the metrological characterisation of non-satellite measurement techniques: Striving for traceable, reference quality, fiducial measurement series
Augment and consolidate existing geographical coverage of reference quality observational networks to be more globally representative, including a range of surface types and climate zones
Improve time scheduling coherency of satellite and non-satellite measurements to minimise co-location uncertainty effects and ensure timely exchange of match-ups
Instigate and sustain timely access to a comprehensive set of harmonised reference data and metadata holdings under a common data model and open data policy that enables interoperability for applications
Observational network governance
Take steps to reassess, rationalise, and improve coordination of high quality observing networks
Conversion of non-satellite measures to TOA radiance-equivalents and their use
Improve knowledge of fundamental spectroscopy and undertake associated innovations in radiative-transfer modelling
Improve quantification of the effects of surface properties to reduce uncertainties in satellite data assimilation and satellite to non-satellite data comparisons
Develop and provide tools that convert non-satellite reference quality measurements to TOA radiance equivalents with associated rigorously quantified uncertainties
Understanding and quantifying irreducible co-location mismatch effects
Improve the basis for assigning co-locations and quantifying rigorously the associated uncertainties, including steps towards operational provision of co-location uncertainties
Provision of user tools that enable exploitation
Operationalise a co-location match-ups, visualisation and extraction tool, such as the GAIA-CLIM Virtual Observatory, to facilitate user access to satellite to non-satellite match-ups