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G6.12 Under - capacity of workforce to exploit satellite data and satellite characterisation

Gap abstract: 
While it is necessary to address technical and organisational gaps that reduce the availability, effectiveness and quality of satellite characterisation data, doing so is moot unless there is a sufficient capacity to develop and deliver products and services to the marketplace. There is a shortage of skilled workforce from the development and deployment of high-quality non-satellite instrumentation, through its processing to its exploitation to provide high-quality data products merging satellite and non-satellite data. If Copernicus services are to realise their full potential additional training through formal and informal routes is required to train the next generation of data providers, analysts and users that can fully exploit the substantive investment in space-based and non-space based observational assets and deliver the envisaged step-change in capabilities and services.

Part I Gap Description

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Primary Gap Type: 
  • Governance (missing documentation, cooperation etc.)
User Category/Application area Impacted: 
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • Climate research (research groups working on development, validation and improvement of ECV Climate Data Records)
Non-satellite Instrument Techniques Involved: 
independent of instrument technique
Detailed description: 

European and global space agencies are investing substantially in improved satellite based remote-sensing capabilities. At the same time numerous national and trans-national networks are performing high-quality non-satellite measurements. To realise a return on investment on these observational assets requires a skilled workforce capable of understanding and exploiting these data to their full potential. Experience within the GAIA-CLIM project, which aims to develop a set of tools and approaches to highlight potential applications of non-satellite data to better characterise satellite observations has highlighted the limited pool of available expertise at the present time. This expertise deficit pertains to all aspects of the end-to-end chain from instrument experts through practitioners capable of delivering products to end-users. Without addressing the educational / training deficit highlighted it will be impossible to fully realise the value of the substantive investments to date in the space and non-space observational segments. A range of training needs are envisaged from formal educational routes that train the next generation of instrument specialists, data analysts and product developers through to more informal training of those delivering user services and advice.

 

Validation Aspects Addressed Other: 
Generic education gap underpins all aspects but is not directly related to any one.
Expected Gap Status after GAIA-CLIM: 
After GAIA-CLIM this gap is likely to remain
Identified BenefitUser Category/Application area benefittedProbability of benefit being realisedImpacts
Innovative research
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • High
New products, analyses, improved observations and approaches, innovations to research infrastructures
Increase in practitioners capable of delivering user services
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • High
Better provision of service and advice to users
Identified riskUser Category/Application area benefittedProbability of benefit being realisedImpacts
Lack of capacity to uptake and use Copernicus data services
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • Medium
Lack of competition in marketplace, incorrect provision of advice and / or services to end users, non-utilisation of observational data to support decision making
Long-term observational operation compromised
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • High
  • Medium
Observational capabilities not sustained leading to critical gaps in service / information provision.
Long-term management of observational capabilities and programs
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • Medium
  • Low
Next generation of science and service leaders not available leading to reductions in service quality and / or provision.
Gap Remedies: 

Remedy 1: Undergraduate, masters and doctoral training programs in Copernicus-relevant programs

Primary Gap remedy type: 
Education/Training
Specify remedy proposal: 

The exploitation of Copernicus data and services requires the training of a competent workforce of data providers, analysts, managers and service provision experts. This requires a substantial increase in the number of relevant degree programs at undergraduate, masters and PhD levels. Via the Copernicus academy system, ERASMUS+ or other avenues innovative teaching courses could be pursued and shared to help develop competency in use of Copernicus data to derive products and services including the use of satellite and non-satellite data and their appropriate synthesis / fusion / merging.

Perhaps most acute is training at the doctoral level which provides the next generation of expert scientists capable of maintaining and improving the observational program and driving innovative analysis. In many countries within Europe there is very limited, if any access to doctoral funding program support for Copernicus relevant activities. Increasingly within H2020 / FP projects work has shifted to postdoctoral and senior staff at the expense of doctoral training. National doctoral training programs are also squeezed and highly competitive with the majority of funding going to non-EO related subjects. There hence exists a looming capability capacity issue as the existing EO expert workforce is not being adequately replaced. The Copernicus program, through the Copernicus Academy or other means could fund a substantive doctoral training program dedicated to questions relevant to Copernicus and dispersed via member states. This would enhance the ability of academic institutions to engage with Copernicus activities while simultaneously training potential future researchers to support the sustained operation of Copernicus services. Such doctoral candidates and their supervisors would naturally act as champions of Copernicus within their institutions, potentially aiding uptake within the academic sector and acting as a force multiplier.

Many of the gaps and remedies identified by both GAIA-CLIM through its GAID and elsewhere are amenable to doctoral thesis type work. Doctoral studentships are relatively inexpensive and offer an opportunity to explore issues in depth including possible high-risk high-reward proposed work. A targeted doctoral program addressing questions of mutual interest to host institution and Copernicus would facilitate the provision of a sustainable programmatic capability while simultaneously better engaging academia within the programmatic structure.

 

Relevance: 

The exploitation of Copernicus data and services requires the training of a competent workforce of data providers, analysts, managers and service provision experts.

Measurable Outcome of Success: 

Increase in range of qualified individuals supporting the Copernicus program provision.

Expected Viability for the Outcome of Success: 
  • High
Scale of Work: 
  • Individually
  • Single institution
Time Bound to Remedy: 
  • Less than 10 years
Indicative Cost Estimate (investment): 
  • Low cost (<1 million)
Costs depend entirely on ambition of the instigated program – single studentships typically costs anywhere between 50 and 150K (country dependent) including student stipend and institutional overheads. The typical studentship takes between 3 and 5 years t
Indicative Cost Estimate (exploitation): 
  • Yes
Again, dependent upon scale of ambition
Potential Actors: 
  • Copernicus funding
  • National funding agencies

Remedy 2: Instigate formal qualification of competency in provision of Copernicus services

Primary Gap remedy type: 
Education/Training
Specify remedy proposal: 

The effective provision of services from Copernicus data requires users to be able to access providers with confidence about the quality of the service provider. This would be greatly aided by a program of certificate of competency which would assure a basic level of service provision in the use and analysis of satellite and non-satellite data was attained by the party offering the service. This may result from a combination of proof of prior service engagement with users and / or formal training course(s) attendance. Service providers should show competency in accessing relevant observational data and products, their appropriate fusion, and the provision of advice to the user. A Copernicus service provision certificate could be provided by one or more accredited institutions providing training in required competencies with appropriate assessment. Training should be provided in a range of languages and need not be limited to European domain.

 

Relevance: 

Ensure that users can be confident of competency of service provider to deliver relevant information services.

Measurable Outcome of Success: 

Increased uptake of Copernicus services by end-users.

Expected Viability for the Outcome of Success: 
  • High
Scale of Work: 
  • Individually
  • Single institution
Time Bound to Remedy: 
  • Less than 3 years
Indicative Cost Estimate (investment): 
  • Medium cost (<5 million)
Given the time bound and scale of work a preliminary investment cost estimate might be given for specific proposed remedy. These costs are assumed one-time investments costs and exclude reoccurring operational costs
Indicative Cost Estimate (exploitation): 
  • Yes
Dependent upon scope
Potential Actors: 
  • Copernicus funding
  • National funding agencies
  • National Meteorological Services
  • ESA, Eumetsat or other Space agency
  • Academia, individual research institutes
  • SMEs/industry
  • National Measurement Institutes
Dependencies: 
Underpins many other gaps but not any critical relationship per se.

G6.07 Different data policies harm the use of complementary data from different networks

Gap abstract: 
Most networks have grown bottom-up and each one has established its own specific data policy. The consequence hereof is that portals providing access to data from several networks, or users who combine data from different networks in a study or application, must deal with different data policies. This makes the combined use of complementary data quite tedious, also requiring for the user to be familiar with the different data policies used in order to fully conversant with the stated policies.

Part I Gap Description

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Primary Gap Type: 
  • Governance (missing documentation, cooperation etc.)
ECVs impacted: 
  • Temperature,Water vapour, Ozone, Aerosols, Carbon Dioxide, Methane
User Category/Application area Impacted: 
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • International (collaboration) frameworks (SDGs, space agency, EU institutions, WMO programmes/frameworks etc.)
  • Climate research (research groups working on development, validation and improvement of ECV Climate Data Records)
Non-satellite Instrument Techniques Involved: 
independent of instrument technique
Detailed description: 

Many of the existing data policies can be very different, e.g.,

  •          completely open access for all users including commercial users;
  •         open access for research purposes only;
  •         open access after a set time delay;
  •         access only upon request to PI.

The use of more open data policies supports increasing the quality, quantity and re-use of the data for multiple applications. However, in order to maximise the discovery and innovation of data would require increased coordination in order to harmonize data and license policies. Currently users need to become familiar with the different policies before they can confidently combine data or use of portals that provide data from multiple networks thus limiting the interoperability of data from different sources. This gap affects the validation of any satellite mission, for whatever ECV or application.

Validation Aspects Addressed: 
Radiance (Level 1 product)
Geophysical product (Level 2 product)
Gridded product (Level 3)
Assimilated product (Level 4)
Time series and trends
Representativity (spatial, temporal)
Calibration (relative, absolute)
Spectroscopy
Specific pixel types (ocean, land, desert, tropical, polar, etc.)
Auxiliary parameters (clouds, lightpath, surface albedo, emissivity)
Expected Gap Status after GAIA-CLIM: 
After GAIA-CLIM this gap is likely to remain
Identified BenefitUser Category/Application area benefittedProbability of benefit being realisedImpacts
Open access to all available geophysical data, for any user.
  • High
  • Medium
Better use of the data, especially for commercial purposes – with possibly new market-oriented applications; Open data standards support increased transparency, wider applicability , understanding, and re-use of data, as well as interoperability of data.
Data providers can highlight the use of their data to their funding agencies for justifying the cost of the data acquisition and provision.
  • High
  • Medium
Funding agencies get more convinced about the cost-effectiveness of supporting observations.
Identified riskUser Category/Application area benefittedProbability of benefit being realisedImpacts
Certain data sets remain hidden for some time or remain unexploited.
  • Low
It is more tedious or even costly for a user to get hold of the data he/she needs. Funding agencies get frustrated about the cost-effectiveness of supporting observations.
Users do not comply with individual data policies e.g., in publications.
  • High
Data providers get frustrated and will release less data. Limited understanding of data policies continues to lower effective and accurate use of data.
Gap Remedies: 

Remedy 1: Coordination at European level to harmonise data and licence policies by extending the use of existing technical standards

Primary Gap remedy type: 
Governance
Specify remedy proposal: 

Propose an open data policy for all networks in line with the new European policies for Copernicus and the US data policies that are generally open. The gap would be solved if the open data policy that is applicable to the Copernicus programme, including the Sentinel missions, would be enforced upon all networks, data centres, and satellite agencies. That is a political decision, but it must be clear to the data providers that there is a benefit for them and they must be assured that the data acquisition is secured by their funding organisations, and that they get credit for their data.

Relevance: 

The remedy of adopting an open data policy means that once the data are submitted to the data archive/data centre, they are public for all users, including commercial users. This facilitates and stimulates the use of the data and stimulates the (combined) use of complementary data from different networks, hence a larger cost-effectiveness of the networks. To make this option acceptable for the data providers, the latter should get credit for their data. The funding organisations must be made aware of the use of the data, as an encouragement to sustain the data acquisition. Harmonisation of data policies facilitates the data access in data portals and for data users – stimulating the (combined) use of complementary data from different networks, hence a more beneficial use of the networks data.

Measurable Outcome of Success: 

The adoption of an open data policy by all networks and the enhanced utilisation of the data will demonstrate the success of the remedy.

Scale of Work: 
  • Programmatic multi-year, multi-institution activity
Time Bound to Remedy: 
  • Less than 3 years
Indicative Cost Estimate (investment): 
  • Low cost (<1 million)
Indicative Cost Estimate (exploitation): 
  • Yes
If an institute loses money through the open data policy, because it earned money from the data previously, then this can be seen as a recurring cost.
Potential Actors: 
  • National funding agencies
  • National Meteorological Services
  • National Measurement Institutes
Dependencies: 
The current gap is a sub-set of the larger G5.01, which in addition to data policy speaks to data formats, access routes etc. The two gaps should be addressed together.

G6.06 - Requirement to make reference-quality measurements on a sustained and continuous basis, to maximise opportunities for the validation of satellite L1 and derived higher-level products

Gap abstract: 
Many sub-orbital reference measurements have the potential to be operated on a sustained and continuous basis, thereby maximising opportunities for the validation of satellite-based measurements, as well as higher level data products derived from them. For various reasons - including scientific, technical, operational, organisational, and financial reasons - this potential has not been fully realised to date as many reference observations are obtained only intermittently. This gap sets out the general and overarching case for ‘operationalising’ key reference measurements.

Part I Gap Description

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Primary Gap Type: 
  • Spatiotemporal coverage
Secondary Gap Type: 
  • Technical (missing tools, formats etc.)
ECVs impacted: 
  • Temperature,Water vapour, Ozone, Aerosols, Carbon Dioxide, Methane
User Category/Application area Impacted: 
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • International (collaboration) frameworks (SDGs, space agency, EU institutions, WMO programmes/frameworks etc.)
  • Climate research (research groups working on development, validation and improvement of ECV Climate Data Records)
Non-satellite Instrument Techniques Involved: 
Lidar
Microwave Radiometer
FTIR
Brewer/Dobson
UV/VIS zenith DOAS
UV/VIS MAXDOAS
GNSS-PW
Detailed description: 

The specific classes of ECVs addressed in the GAIA-CLIM project (temperature, water vapour, aerosols and atmospheric composition) are measurable by a diverse range of instruments. For some non-satellite instruments, there are geophysical limitations as to when measurements can be undertaken, e.g., FTIR requires direct line of sight to the sun under clear-sky conditions.  However, other instruments (e.g., GNSS-PW and microwave radiometers) can, in principle, operate on a continuous basis.

The primary benefits of sustained and continuous operations are two-fold: Firstly, the opportunities to achieve spatiotemporal match-ups with satellite measurements - if this is the primary approach to validation - are maximised; and secondly the validation of higher level data products (spanning the full range from retrieved products, through gridded products, to global reanalysis-based products) is enhanced through the use of continuous datasets.

The measurement techniques potentially available to serve as reference measurements for the relevant ECVs include: ground-based (microwave radiometry and infrared spectrometry; differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) and lidar (including Rayleigh (aerosol), Raman, rotational Raman and differential absorption lidar). There are a number of reasons why, in practice, many measurements are not made on a continuous basis:

  •     Technical - instruments may require frequent maintenance, adjustment, or retuning requiring manual intervention which may not be available on a continuous basis;
  •     Scientific – particular site-specific conditions may prevent measurements being made. For example, cloud conditions may preclude certain measurements (e.g., FTIR – for composition measurements, or for passive measurements of temperature and humidity, also rotational Raman lidar for temperature).
  •     Operations / logistics – the site may not be manned continuously and instruments cannot, as yet, operate in an automated way.

Funding, clearly, plays a role in determining the capacity for a given instrument to make continuous measurements: Enhanced funding support could ensure a station/instrument is capable of more continuous operations through higher levels of manning; Funding could also support technical development work to improve the degree of automation of the instrumentation. 

The purpose of this gap is to recognise this general deficiency in many observing networks, and to encourage support to rectify these deficiencies.

Operational Space Missions or Space Instruments impacted: 
Independent of specific space mission or space instruments
Validation Aspects Addressed: 
Radiance (Level 1 product)
Geophysical product (Level 2 product)
Gridded product (Level 3)
Assimilated product (Level 4)
Time series and trends
Calibration (relative, absolute)
Expected Gap Status after GAIA-CLIM: 
After GAIA-CLIM this gap is likely to remain
Identified BenefitUser Category/Application area benefittedProbability of benefit being realisedImpacts
Better intra-satellite and inter-satellite data characterization using the ground segment through increased pool of co-locations to common non-satellite tie-points.
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • Climate research (research groups working on development, validation and improvement of ECV Climate Data Records)
  • High
Better characterized satellite data will yield improved utilization in derived products, including reanalyses products and resulting services.
More robust funding support for ground-based observations continuity. Recognizing that ground-based products may have unique value in, e.g., providing vertically resolved profiles.
  • International (collaboration) frameworks (SDGs, space agency, EU institutions, WMO programmes/frameworks etc.)
  • Climate research (research groups working on development, validation and improvement of ECV Climate Data Records)
  • Medium
Diversity of tools and data available to support service providers to develop bespoke products.
Identified riskUser Category/Application area benefittedProbability of benefit being realisedImpacts
Insufficient number of high-quality co-locations in the future that meet co-location match-up criteria to meaningfully constrain (at least some) satellite missions.
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • Climate research (research groups working on development, validation and improvement of ECV Climate Data Records)
  • High
Reduced confidence in satellite measurements and products and services derived therefrom.
Inability to use non-satellite segment to effectively bridge across any unplanned gap in spaceborne EO capabilities.
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • Climate research (research groups working on development, validation and improvement of ECV Climate Data Records)
  • Medium
  • Low
Reduced co-locations reduces the opportunity to use the non-satellite series to bridge the effects of any gap and yield a homogeneous series. This reduces the value of the satellite record for monitoring long-term environmental changes.
Reduction in perceived utility and value of measurements leading to reduction in funding.
  • International (collaboration) frameworks (SDGs, space agency, EU institutions, WMO programmes/frameworks etc.)
  • Medium
  • Low
Diversifying the usage base of the high-quality measurements increases their intrinsic value and helps support widespread adoption.
Gap Remedies: 

Remedy 1: Operationalize measurements to be 24/7 on an instrument-by-instrument and site-by-site basis.

Primary Gap remedy type: 
Technical
Secondary Gap remedy type: 
Laboratory
Specify remedy proposal: 

Remedy will be specific to individual cases. But, in general, it requires an assessment on a per instrument and per site basis of the current impediments to continuous operation of the asset. Once the reason(s) underlying are known then work can be undertaken to address. Generally, these may fall into several categories:

  •    Technical innovations or modifications to the instrumentation to enable continuous operations;
  •      Modifications to instrument housing;
  •     Funding increases to enable continuous operation.

Amongst others, resolution of these issues shall require the participation of instrument scientists, site operators, networks, and funding agencies.

Relevance: 

Remedy will be specific to individual cases. But, in general, it requires an assessment on a per instrument and per site basis of the current impediments to continuous operation of the asset.

Measurable Outcome of Success: 

Increased number of high-quality non-satellite data available providing a sufficient number of co-locations with satellite measurements on a sustained and more continuous basis, and providing the possibility to bridge successive satellite missions.

Expected Viability for the Outcome of Success: 
  • High
Scale of Work: 
  • Programmatic multi-year, multi-institution activity
Time Bound to Remedy: 
  • More than 10 years
Indicative Cost Estimate (exploitation): 
  • Yes
Case-by-case but typically - Medium cost (<5 million)
Potential Actors: 
  • National funding agencies
  • National Meteorological Services
  • WMO
  • ESA, Eumetsat or other Space agency
  • Academia, individual research institutes
  • SMEs/industry
  • National Measurement Institutes
Dependencies: 
To be addressed with G6.06. Argument: “Operationalising instruments that can be operated 24/7 increases the number of dedicated observations to coincide with satellite overpass.“

G6.03 Lack of sustained dedicated observations to coincide with satellite overpass to minimise co-location effects

Gap abstract: 
There are many non-satellite measurement systems that, in principle, could be used for the purposes of satellite characterisation on a sustained basis. Such measurements are metrologically well characterised and understood and target variables, which are measured or measurable from space. However, many of the measurement systems are discontinuous in time and their scheduling is made with no regard to satellite overpass times. This diminishes their value for satellite Cal/Val activities considerably. Better scheduling would increase their intrinsic value for satellite programs.

Part I Gap Description

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Primary Gap Type: 
  • Governance (missing documentation, cooperation etc.)
Secondary Gap Type: 
  • Spatiotemporal coverage
  • Uncertainty in relation to comparator measures
ECVs impacted: 
  • Temperature,Water vapour, Ozone, Aerosols, Carbon Dioxide, Methane
User Category/Application area Impacted: 
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • International (collaboration) frameworks (SDGs, space agency, EU institutions, WMO programmes/frameworks etc.)
  • Climate research (research groups working on development, validation and improvement of ECV Climate Data Records)
Non-satellite Instrument Techniques Involved: 
Radiosonde
Ozonesonde
Lidar
other non-GAIA-CLIM targeted instrument techniques, please specify:
Detailed description: 

For some non-satellite instruments there are geophysical limitations as to when measurements can be undertaken e.g. an FTIR requires direct line of sight to the sun or a MAX-DOAS can only measure at sunrise/sunset.

Other instruments can and do operate 24/7 and therefore shall always capture a co-location if the satellite passes overhead. For example, both GNSS-PW and microwave radiometers in principle operate on a 24/7 basis.

But for many non-satellite measurement techniques it is for financial or logistical reasons that measurements are solely episodic. For example, radiosonde launches tend to be twice-daily or at best four times daily at fixed times. Similarly, for many instrument configurations, lidar operations may be made only when staff are available. These types of considerations effect very many non-satellite measurements, which could in principle be better targeted to support EO-sensor characterization by taking measurements much closer to satellite overpass time. This would reduce the co-location mismatch and thus the attendant mismatch uncertainties. Because funding for these observations typically is not concerned with satellite characterisation the current sampling strategy ends up being sub-optimal for satellite characterisation. Better aligning sampling strategies with times of satellite overpass, which are predictable in advance would increase their utility to satellite Cal/Val activities.

Operational Space Missions or Space Instruments impacted: 
Independent of specific space mission or space instruments
Validation Aspects Addressed: 
Radiance (Level 1 product)
Geophysical product (Level 2 product)
Time series and trends
Representativity (spatial, temporal)
Calibration (relative, absolute)
Expected Gap Status after GAIA-CLIM: 
After GAIA-CLIM this gap is likely to remain
Identified BenefitUser Category/Application area benefittedProbability of benefit being realisedImpacts
Better intra-satellite and inter-satellite data characterization using the ground segment through increased pool of co-locations to common non-satellite tie-points
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • Climate research (research groups working on development, validation and improvement of ECV Climate Data Records)
  • High
Better characterized satellite data will yield improved utilization in derived products including reanalyses products and resulting services
More robust funding support for ground-based observations continuity. Recognising that ground-based products may have unique value in e.g. providing vertically resolved profiles
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • International (collaboration) frameworks (SDGs, space agency, EU institutions, WMO programmes/frameworks etc.)
  • Medium
Diversity of tools and data available to support service providers to develop bespoke products
Identified riskUser Category/Application area benefittedProbability of benefit being realisedImpacts
Insufficient number of high quality co-locations in the future that meet co-location match-up criteria to meaningfully constrain (at least some) satellite missions.
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • Climate research (research groups working on development, validation and improvement of ECV Climate Data Records)
  • High
Reduced confidence in satellite measurements and products and services derived therefrom.
Inability to use non-satellite segment to effectively bridge across any unplanned gap in spaceborne EO capabilities
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • Climate research (research groups working on development, validation and improvement of ECV Climate Data Records)
  • Low
Reduced colocations reduces the opportunity to use the non-satellite series to bridge the effects of any gap and yield a homogeneous series. This reduces the value of the satellite record for monitoring long-term environmental changes
Reduction in perceived utility and value of measurements leading to reduction in funding
  • International (collaboration) frameworks (SDGs, space agency, EU institutions, WMO programmes/frameworks etc.)
  • Low
Diversifying the usage base of the high-quality measurements increases their intrinsic value and helps support widespread adoption.
Gap Remedies: 

Remedy 1: Optimization of scheduling to enhance capability for satellite Cal/Val activities

Primary Gap remedy type: 
Deployment
Secondary Gap remedy type: 
Governance
Specify remedy proposal: 

Sustained funding and governance mechanisms need to be instigated and assured that optimise the observational scheduling of relevant high-quality non-satellite measurements and their provision in NRT for satellite characterisation if the full potential value of these measures is to be realised. To be effective space agencies and non-satellite high-quality observing networks need to work together to design, instigate and fund a sustained program of targeted measurements that optimise collection and dissemination of non-satellite data in support of the space-based observational segment. The scientific benefits will be maximised if a strategy can be devised which optimizes the ability of the non-satellite data segment to characterize satellite instrument performance across-time, across-platforms and across instrument types. This, in turn, points to individual non-satellite observational segments being tasked with helping to characterise across multiple missions from multiple agencies from multiple countries to maximise the scientific value of the cal/val exercise rather than this support being extended and decided on a per mission basis.

Care must be taken for any changes not to impact deleteriously upon existing functions and purposes of the non-satellite segment. This implies that in at least some cases the remedy will need to involve funding support commensurate with taking new or additional measurements. The most obvious solution would be to instigate an international measurements support program which would administer and disperse funding support for sustained satellite cal/val from selected high-quality sites that optimise spending decisions and had as active stakeholders agencies, non-satellite data providers and end-users.

 

Relevance: 

Better scheduling would increase the number of co-locations available for measurement systems that are discontinuous in time and increase the intrinsic value of the non-satellite observations for satellite Cal/Val.

 

Expected Viability for the Outcome of Success: 
  • High
Scale of Work: 
  • Programmatic multi-year, multi-institution activity
Time Bound to Remedy: 
  • More than 10 years
Indicative Cost Estimate (investment): 
  • Medium cost (<5 million)
Indicative Cost Estimate (exploitation): 
  • Yes
Annually recurring costs estimated about 5 million euro / year
Potential Actors: 
  • Copernicus funding
  • National funding agencies
  • WMO
  • ESA, Eumetsat or other Space agency
  • Academia, individual research institutes
  • SMEs/industry
  • National Measurement Institutes
Dependencies: 
G6.01 - To be addressed with G6.03 Argument: "The resolution to the current gap will be simpler if a more unified governance of non-satellite measurement networks is achieved and the data is provided from these networks in a more unified manner G6.06 To be addressed with G6.03 Argument: “Operationalising instruments that can be operated 24/7 removes the current gap for the instruments affected“

G6.02 Geographically dispersed observational assets reduce their utility for satellite Cal/Val

Gap abstract: 
As a result of fractured governance along with historical funding decisions, observation systems, which may, in principle, be synergistic, are not presently sufficiently geographically co-located in order to realise the benefits. For example, a twice-daily radiosonde program is undertaken 100km from a facility with lidars and an FTIR. This dispersion of observational capabilities substantially reduces their overall value to the user community for uses including, but not limited to, satellite instrument characterisation.

Part I Gap Description

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Primary Gap Type: 
  • Spatiotemporal coverage
Secondary Gap Type: 
  • Governance (missing documentation, cooperation etc.)
ECVs impacted: 
  • Temperature,Water vapour, Ozone, Aerosols, Carbon Dioxide, Methane
User Category/Application area Impacted: 
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • International (collaboration) frameworks (SDGs, space agency, EU institutions, WMO programmes/frameworks etc.)
  • Climate research (research groups working on development, validation and improvement of ECV Climate Data Records)
Non-satellite Instrument Techniques Involved: 
independent of instrument technique
Detailed description: 

A direct result of the fractured governance of observational networks is that instruments that could derive synergistic analysis benefits are very frequently not geographically co-located. That is to say that an instrument may belong to network X and be located 100km distance from a suite of complimentary instruments belonging to network Y. Because the measurements are geographically dispersed, this serves to reduce their value for numerous applications including, but not limited to, satellite characterisation. This arises either because they measure complementary ECVs that enable fuller understanding, or measure distinct aspects of the same ECV such that, when combined, a fuller understanding of the measurand accrues. Although further analysis is required to realise such benefits, this can only occur once the instrumentation and observing strategies are sufficiently co-located and aligned. Furthermore, many satellite instruments measure phenomena, which arise from multiple ECVs. To effectively bridge any gaps that may result in the satellite series for climate, research requires a sufficient sample of non-satellite stations capable of measuring the full suite of parameters sensed by the satellite instrument. This in turn, calls for coalescence of dispersed measurement capabilities at single sites.

Operational Space Missions or Space Instruments impacted: 
Independent of specific space mission or space instruments
Validation Aspects Addressed: 
Radiance (Level 1 product)
Representativity (spatial, temporal)
Calibration (relative, absolute)
Auxiliary parameters (clouds, lightpath, surface albedo, emissivity)
Identified BenefitUser Category/Application area benefittedProbability of benefit being realisedImpacts
Improved characterisation of state of atmospheric column characteristics at co-located sites
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • High
Better ability to characterise processes and undertake vicarious calibration of satellites and other instrumentation
Development of novel products combining information from multiple instruments
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • Medium
Improved understanding of relevant processes, new products, and services
Cooperation between investigators, networks, and funders
  • International (collaboration) frameworks (SDGs, space agency, EU institutions, WMO programmes/frameworks etc.)
  • Medium
Better planning and deployment of future observational capabilities
Identified riskUser Category/Application area benefittedProbability of benefit being realisedImpacts
Continued lack of strategic placement of research infrastructure, leading to diminished scientific value across the range of application areas.
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • International (collaboration) frameworks (SDGs, space agency, EU institutions, WMO programmes/frameworks etc.)
  • High
Reduced quality of data services provided by dispersed instruments.
Potential research insights arising from co-located observational strategy not realised.
Threat to instrument long-term continuity arising from not realising full value of assets.
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • High
  • Medium
Reduction in overall non-satellite measurement constellation capabilities.
Reduced ability to bridge across catastrophic satellite failure.
  • Climate research (research groups working on development, validation and improvement of ECV Climate Data Records)
  • Medium
  • Low
Many satellite instruments take measurements that are sensitive to multiple parameters. To bridge the effect of catastrophic failure requires surface assets capable of sufficiently mimicking the measurement series.
Gap Remedies: 

Remedy 1: Reviews of capabilities leading to action plans for rationalisation

Primary Gap remedy type: 
Deployment
Secondary Gap remedy type: 
Governance
Specify remedy proposal: 

Undertake assessments / reviews of high quality observational assets to assess potential value of different reconfigurations of capabilities to address multiple potential applications. These assessments may be carried out nationally, regionally or internationally. The assessments must be guided to the extent available by quantitative research and well-formulated stakeholder needs.  The reviews would lead to steps towards consolidation of facilities where a clear benefit to multiple data stakeholders is identified. The analysis may be facilitated by activities such as OSSEs, short period field campaigns or other activities, which permit a quantitative assessment of the benefits of collocating capabilities. It may also make use of a number of existing instrument rich sites such as the ARM SGP site, Ny Alesund, Lindenberg, Lauder, etc.

Relevance: 

The remedy would lead to rationalisation of observing capabilities to selected super-sites where justified.

Measurable Outcome of Success: 

Evidence of more strategic decision-making and long-term planning in research infrastructure investments and progressive creation of more co-located facilities.

Expected Viability for the Outcome of Success: 
  • Medium
Scale of Work: 
  • Programmatic multi-year, multi-institution activity
Time Bound to Remedy: 
  • Less than 5 years
Indicative Cost Estimate (investment): 
  • High cost (>5 million)
Indicative Cost Estimate (exploitation): 
  • Yes
Estimate is entirely dependent upon the degree of uptake.
Potential Actors: 
  • Copernicus funding
  • National funding agencies
  • National Meteorological Services
  • WMO
  • ESA, Eumetsat or other Space agency
Dependencies: 
Part of the closure of G1.10 may include a rationalisation of the dispersed observational capabilities in data-sparse regions to maximise both their value and their long-term sustainability. G6.02 arises as a direct result of G6.01, which is the fractured governance of measurement systems. Addressing G6.01 is required as part of closing G6.02.

G6.01 Dispersed governance of high-quality measurement assets leading to gaps and redundancies in capabilities and methodological distinctions

Gap abstract: 
Current governance of high-quality measurement programs is highly fractured. Numerous networks exist at national, regional, and global levels that have been set up and funded under a variety of governance models. This fractured management of observational capabilities can lead to, amongst others: redundancies, spatiotemporal gaps, varied data formats, varied data processing choices, and fractured provision of data. The gap thus contributes to many other more specific gaps identified in the GAIA-CLIM GAID process.

Part I Gap Description

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Primary Gap Type: 
  • Governance (missing documentation, cooperation etc.)
Secondary Gap Type: 
  • Spatiotemporal coverage
  • Vertical domain and/or vertical resolution
  • Knowledge of uncertainty budget and calibration
ECVs impacted: 
  • Temperature,Water vapour, Ozone, Aerosols, Carbon Dioxide, Methane
User Category/Application area Impacted: 
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • International (collaboration) frameworks (SDGs, space agency, EU institutions, WMO programmes/frameworks etc.)
Non-satellite Instrument Techniques Involved: 
independent of instrument technique
Detailed description: 

Non-satellite data sources identified as reference and baseline quality within GAIA-CLIM have greatly dispersed governance structures. There are numerous national, regional and global networks which aim to measure GAIA-CLIM target ECVs to a high standard. This dispersed governance leads to decisions, which, although sensible on an individual network basis, are sub-optimal on a more holistic basis.

This fractured governance both results from but also augments a diversity in historical and present-day funding support, authority, and observational program priorities. Inevitable deleterious results accrue from a fractured governance and support mechanism which include:

  •   Geographical dispersal of capabilities
  •   Heterogeneous processing choices
  •   Heterogeneities in measurement technique practices
  •   Competition between otherwise synergistic activities
  •   Different networks take different approaches to data processing and serving which reduces both accessibility to and comparability of the resulting data.

As such many of the remaining gaps identified within the GAIA-CLIM GAID are symptoms of the effects of G6.01 remaining unaddressed (see prior section). Although the gap has been identified and articulated here solely for GAIA-CLIM target ECVs it is symptomatic of broader issues that pervade the governance of all but perhaps for a small handful of non-satellite observational assets and programs. The norm is for multiple parties to be interested in measuring given essential climate variables and other essential variables.

Validation Aspects Addressed: 
Radiance (Level 1 product)
Time series and trends
Representativity (spatial, temporal)
Calibration (relative, absolute)
Expected Gap Status after GAIA-CLIM: 
After GAIA-CLIM this gap is likely to remain
Identified BenefitUser Category/Application area benefittedProbability of benefit being realisedImpacts
More unified voice for non-satellite data management
  • International (collaboration) frameworks (SDGs, space agency, EU institutions, WMO programmes/frameworks etc.)
  • High
Improved ability to engage in strategy planning. Improved responsiveness in a unified fashion to identified user and stakeholder needs.
Rationalisation of observational assets
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • Medium
Co-location of high-quality instrumentation leading to better characterisation of atmospheric properties
Consistency of data provision
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • Medium
More consistent provision of data (reduction in variety of portals and / or formats) leading to better ability to utilise the data.
More efficient use of resources
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • High
  • Medium
Greater value to funders
User Category/Application area benefitted: 
International (collaboration) frameworks (SDGs, space agency, EU institutions, WMO programmes/frameworks etc.)
Probability of benefit being realised: 
High
Impacts: 
Reduced utility of observational data assets through fractured decision-making.
Identified riskUser Category/Application area benefittedProbability of benefit being realisedImpacts
Reduction in funding opportunities for high-quality measurements owing to fractured and competing demands.
  • International (collaboration) frameworks (SDGs, space agency, EU institutions, WMO programmes/frameworks etc.)
  • Medium
Reduced value of observations.
Continued fractured governance leading to sub-optimal management and development of high-quality measurement networks.
  • International (collaboration) frameworks (SDGs, space agency, EU institutions, WMO programmes/frameworks etc.)
  • High
Reduced utility of observational data assets through fractured decision-making.
Identified risk: 
Continued fractured governance leading to sub-optimal management and development of high-quality measurement networks.
User Category/Application area benefitted: 
International (collaboration) frameworks (SDGs, space agency, EU institutions, WMO programmes/frameworks etc.)
Probability of benefit being realised: 
High
Gap Remedies: 

Remedy 1: Short-term cross-network governance steps

Primary Gap remedy type: 
Governance
Specify remedy proposal: 

Strengthen existing efforts to ensure meaningful collaboration between potentially synergistic or complementary networks. This could be achieved via several means. Improved cross-governance group representation could be implemented between networks that have similar aims / remits which may start to enforce a degree of collaboration and cross-fertilisation of best practices. A more formal approach, which may be relevant in certain cases is a more formal network memoranda of understanding. On a more practical and working level, synergies can be realised through involvement in joint research and infrastructure activities such as Horizon 2020 and Copernicus grants and service contracts and similar activities outside of Europe.

Relevance: 

The remedy would lead to improved cross collaboration and understanding between networks of potential synergies and serve to improve the visibility of activities between synergistic groups.

Measurable Outcome of Success: 

Demonstrable increase in collaboration between networks through joint projects, publications describing joint research outcomes, and participation in network meetings.

Expected Viability for the Outcome of Success: 
  • High
Scale of Work: 
  • Programmatic multi-year, multi-institution activity
Time Bound to Remedy: 
  • Less than 3 years
Indicative Cost Estimate (investment): 
  • Low cost (<1 million)
Indicative Cost Estimate (exploitation): 
  • Yes
Annually reoccurring costs involved in this gap remedy: about 50K Euro per year to facilitate cross-network governance activities.
Potential Actors: 
  • Copernicus funding
  • WMO
  • ESA, Eumetsat or other Space agency

Remedy 2: Longer-term rationalisation of observational network governance

Primary Gap remedy type: 
Governance
Specify remedy proposal: 

Take steps to assess and as necessary rationalise the number of networks involved in taking high-quality measurements by merging where possible leading to more unified governance and planning for these measurement programs both regionally and globally. To undertake this robustly requires an analysis of the current observational capabilities and governance structure, which should take account of funding, geopolitical, remit and other relevant factors. This may include in-depth survey interviews and other means to fully understand the role, support-model, and uses of each network. Then a rationalisation plan would need to be produced, circulated and gain broad buy-in amongst the affected networks and associated global oversight bodies. Mergers should only proceed on a no-regrets basis and should not be enforced if funding support or other essential support would be weakened as a result of the decision. Merged entities must be scientifically more robust, complete and sustainable.

Relevance: 

The remedy would make it easier for funding and research communities to interact with the high-quality measurement networks.

Measurable Outcome of Success: 

Reduction in complexity of the ecosystem of observing networks through time while retaining and enhancing observational capabilities.

Expected Viability for the Outcome of Success: 
  • Medium
Scale of Work: 
  • Programmatic multi-year, multi-institution activity
Time Bound to Remedy: 
  • More than 10 years
Indicative Cost Estimate (investment): 
  • Medium cost (<5 million)
Indicative Cost Estimate (exploitation): 
  • No
Potential Actors: 
  • Copernicus funding
  • National funding agencies
  • National Meteorological Services
  • WMO
  • ESA, Eumetsat or other Space agency
Dependencies: 
The G6.01 gap is an effect multiplier on many of the gaps identified in the GAID. As such its resolution would facilitate resolution of numerous other gaps. Solely a handful of important dependencies are noted here. The gap identified in G6.02 arises as a result of G6.01. One of the key benefits of resolution of G6.01 would be the potential to rationalise dispersed observational assets. The resolution to G6.03 will be simpler if a more unified governance of non-satellite measurement networks is achieved and the data is provided from these networks in a more unified manner. The data policy landscape is a direct result of the fractured governance of observational assets identified in the current gap. Resolving the current gap would aid steps to address the issues detailed in G6.07.

G5.11 Non-operational provision of reference-measurement data and some (L2) satellite products may prevent use in Copernicus operational product monitoring

Gap abstract: 
Copernicus Services, including the Climate Change Service, provide information in close to real time using global and regional reanalysis outputs as well as satellite L2 products. These outputs are not always consistent with their own climatology, because input data are not produced with the same quality at real time as they are in elaborated climate data records. The availability of so-called "Climate Data Record Interim Products" would remedy this problem by producing products with as high as possible consistency with the climatology, being based on automated satellite inter-calibration and careful quality control. This type of data records is emerging from operational satellite agencies but lacks optimal means for validation due to unavailability of many non-satellite reference measurements in close to real time.

Part I Gap Description

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Primary Gap Type: 
  • Governance (missing documentation, cooperation etc.)
Secondary Gap Type: 
  • Technical (missing tools, formats etc.)
ECVs impacted: 
  • Temperature,Water vapour, Ozone, Aerosols, Carbon Dioxide, Methane
User Category/Application area Impacted: 
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • International (collaboration) frameworks (SDGs, space agency, EU institutions, WMO programmes/frameworks etc.)
  • Climate research (research groups working on development, validation and improvement of ECV Climate Data Records)
Non-satellite Instrument Techniques Involved: 
independent of instrument technique
Detailed description: 

Copernicus Services, including the Climate Change Service, provide information in close to real time using global and regional reanalysis outputs as well as satellite L2 products. For the validation of these products, both delivered with high timeliness, it is mandatory to have non-satellite reference measurements available for use in near real time, which is rarely the case today. There is a need to operationalise quality control and delivery of such data in the future to realise the benefits that reference measurements with characterised uncertainty offer.

Currently, many reference measurements are provided with specific delays due to requirements for certain quality-control measures to be applied. But in many other cases, delayed mode provision relates solely to network data policies and / or to data transmission protocols. The usage scenario for a Virtual Observatory within a Copernicus Service would likely need a close to real time availability of reference quality data streams to enable the assessment of very recent satellite-data products and the close to real time performed reanalysis. If the quality analysis and data provision for non-satellite reference measurements cannot be operationalized, leading to faster delivery, quality assessments of Copernicus products at short time scales shall remain of limited nature, reducing the value of the data for applications.

In addition, the timely operational delivery of satellite Climate Data Record Interim Level 2 products that are consistent with their long-term climatology also needs to be fostered to improve close to real time reanalysis products and their validation. The validation of the Interim products could enhance the needs for non-satellite reference measurements as part of an operational validation set up.

Operational Space Missions or Space Instruments impacted: 
Independent of specific space mission or space instruments
Validation Aspects Addressed Other: 
The gap addresses the timeliness of validation that is needed for close to real time outputs of Copernicus Services.
Expected Gap Status after GAIA-CLIM: 
After GAIA-CLIM this gap is likely to remain
Identified BenefitUser Category/Application area benefittedProbability of benefit being realisedImpacts
Operational quality control and delivery of non-satellite reference measurements would allow for better characterisation of satellite and reanalysis products offered in close to real time.
This would most likely generate a higher demand for operationally produced reference measurements where the operational delivery requires also a sustained funding of the needed measurement devices and associated data services.
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • International (collaboration) frameworks (SDGs, space agency, EU institutions, WMO programmes/frameworks etc.)
  • Climate research (research groups working on development, validation and improvement of ECV Climate Data Records)
  • Medium
Quality analysis for time-critical services of Copernicus could be significantly increased by providing reference measurements closer to real time.
Operational production of L2 Climate Data Record Interim satellite products would allow for more consistent reanalysis outputs and its validation.
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • International (collaboration) frameworks (SDGs, space agency, EU institutions, WMO programmes/frameworks etc.)
  • Climate research (research groups working on development, validation and improvement of ECV Climate Data Records)
  • Medium
Quality analysis for time-critical services of Copernicus could be significantly increased by providing CDR Interim L2 products for assimilation and validation of reanalysis. The validation of such products requires the first benefit to be realised.
Identified riskUser Category/Application area benefittedProbability of benefit being realisedImpacts
If the remedy on non-satellite reference measurements is not started, the use of non-satellite reference measurements remains limited.
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • International (collaboration) frameworks (SDGs, space agency, EU institutions, WMO programmes/frameworks etc.)
  • Climate research (research groups working on development, validation and improvement of ECV Climate Data Records)
  • Medium
Reference measurements may play only a minor role in the validation of Copernicus service outputs with potential long-term consequences for the network maintenance. This also applies to their use in the validation of emerging CDR Interim L2 products.
If the remedy on the satellite CDR Interim is not started, reanalysis outputs and other Copernicus satellite-based products suffer from temporal inconsistencies.
  • Operational services and service development (meteorological services, environmental services, Copernicus services C3S & CAMS, operational data assimilation development, etc.)
  • International (collaboration) frameworks (SDGs, space agency, EU institutions, WMO programmes/frameworks etc.)
  • Climate research (research groups working on development, validation and improvement of ECV Climate Data Records)
  • Medium
Quality assurance for CDR Interim L2 products would be far from optimal and financial support of reference-measurement systems may fade also endangering the validation of long-term data records.
Gap Remedies: 

Remedy 1: Operationalise processing and delivery for non-satellite reference measurements and satellite CDR Interim L2 products.

Primary Gap remedy type: 
Governance
Secondary Gap remedy type: 
Technical
Specify remedy proposal: 

A first step would be to assess the current procedures for quality control and delivery mechanism for non-satellite reference measurements, and to work out a proposal to further automate them. Depending on the needs, specific projects could be established to operationalise the processes and associated software. The dissemination of such data could be included into operational dissemination mechanisms used for operational data provisions such as over the WMO Information System.

In addition, entities producing GCOS ECV climate data records from satellite measurements should be encouraged to develop a mechanism that continues the data processing by keeping high consistency with the produced CDR. This involves automated inter-satellite calibration for input data to retrieval schemes and a strongly automated quality control that produced statistics in particular related to the temporal consistency with the long term CDR, e.g., stability and trend estimates with uncertainty. Such data shall be disseminated with high timeliness (~3 days delay).

Relevance: 

The remedy would significantly increase the use of non-satellite reference data in Copernicus Services. The operational character of quality control and delivery mechanism for such data and their subsequent operational use would potentially lead to a funding of measurement systems from operational sources that would sustain the measurement systems and associated data services rather long term.  This could be realised in conjunction with the already emerging generation of CDR Interim L2 products that need reliable reference measurement for their validation, which may increase the chance for funding.

Measurable Outcome of Success: 

Close to real-time availability of non-satellite reference measurements and continuation of GCOS ECV climate data records with high timeliness to Copernicus Services.

Expected Viability for the Outcome of Success: 
  • Medium
  • High
Scale of Work: 
  • Programmatic multi-year, multi-institution activity
Time Bound to Remedy: 
  • Less than 10 years
Indicative Cost Estimate (investment): 
  • Very high cost (>10 million)]
Indicative Cost Estimate (exploitation): 
  • Yes
Unknown cost. Cost depends on the number of networks that need to be maintained and the number of satellite products to be produced in Interim mode. Cost would be certainly > 5 million Euros/year
Potential Actors: 
  • Copernicus funding
  • National funding agencies
  • National Meteorological Services
  • ESA, Eumetsat or other Space agency
  • SMEs/industry
Dependencies: 
Gap 1.10 where the remedy of it would enable the networks of reference measurements with better geographical distribution that can become candidate for operational quality control and data dissemination. The remedies of Gap 1.10 and this gap can be realised in parallel.

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