Remedy 1: Instigate a reference quality measurement program for Pandora measurements

Primary gap remedy type: 
Secondary gap remedy type: 
Proposed remedy description: 

A literature review undertaken in consultation with the Pandora community will provide a better quantification of the measurement uncertainties. This literature review should be supported by findings from the CINDI-2 campaign. Potentially, sensitivity studies to simulate the effects of various uncertainties in the retrieval setup are also needed to fully characterize the uncertainties of the ozone observations. A substantive analysis is required in consultation with experts in metrology to ensure a fully traceable uncertainty can be quantified. This may require modifications to instrument protocols down the line. Key facets of a traceable measurement are: Derivation of measurement equation and traceability diagrams, quantification of effect uncertainties, standardisation of measurement procedures and documentation of the methods deployed.

Within GAIA-CLIM, a detailed traceability chain has already been developed for total column ozone measurements made using UV-visible spectroscopic instruments and for this chain, each of the elements has been described in detail and the corresponding uncertainties have been quantified. Once this traceability chain together with the uncertainty details of the elements have been finalised, this information will be made available publicly and should provide a vital input towards the development of a metrologically rigorous uncertainty quantification for the Pandora instruments. Further work remains to have this processing adopted and the reference quality measurements provided on an operational basis to end-users.


Given that the Pandora instruments will form the backbone of a new measurement network (PANDONIA) run in close collaboration with NDACC, any better understanding of and reduction in the measurement uncertainties will contribute to the homogenisation of the ozone data products available within these networks.

Measurable outcome of success: 

The aim is to reduce the total uncertainty of the final ozone data product and to understand the uncertainty budget and to quantify it in a metrological sense.

Expected viability for the outcome of success: 
  • High
Scale of work: 
  • Individually
  • Single institution
Time bound to remedy: 
  • Less than 3 years
Indicative cost estimate (investment): 
  • Low cost (< 1 million)
Indicative cost estimate (exploitation): 
  • No
Potential actors: 
  • EU H2020 funding
  • Copernicus funding
  • National funding agencies
  • ESA, EUMETSAT or other space agency