Remedy 1: Implement means to provide the community with a forward radiative transfer capability or results of computations

Primary gap remedy type: 
Secondary gap remedy type: 
Proposed remedy description: 

GAIA-CLIM has developed the GRUAN processor that is able to simulate measurements for many satellite instruments operating in the infrared and microwave spectral ranges consistent with GRUAN-profile measures and their uncertainties. Here, it is proposed to integrate the GRUAN processor into the Virtual Observatory and make it accessible online to create simulated measurements for any satellite instrument for which co-locations with the GRUAN-reference measurements exist in the Virtual Observatory database. This could then provide a working model that would enable development of similar operators for measurements arising from other non-satellite reference quality measurements. In particular, many of the modules in the GRUAN processor could be extended to enable the use of additional measurements in future.

Alternatively, potentially at lower cost, a service could provide online results of radiative transfer calculations for ground-based reference measurements that can form an element of match-up data bases and GUI such as the Virtual Observatory.


Implementing the proposed remedy would help to satisfy a clear user need expressed by the GAIA-CLIM user survey. The remedy presents an important step forward towards the validation of Fundamental Climate Data Records that can be evaluated for many instruments using non-satellite reference measurements available within the GAIA-CLIM VO. 

Measurable outcome of success: 

The measurable outcome of success for the specific remedy proposed is the accessible online radiative transfer capability, available as part of the Virtual Observatory, and provision for the long-term maintenance and development of the capability, in accordance with the evolving requirements of stakeholders. 

Expected viability for the outcome of success: 
  • High
Scale of work: 
  • Programmatic multi-year, multi-institution activity
Time bound to remedy: 
  • Less than 5 years
Indicative cost estimate (investment): 
  • Medium cost (< 5 million)
Indicative cost estimate (exploitation): 
  • Yes
In case a service is established that provides results from forward calculations or co-located data.
Potential actors: 
  • EU H2020 funding
  • Copernicus funding
  • ESA, EUMETSAT or other space agency