Remedy 3: Improving quantification of the impacts of geographical gaps on ability to undertake user-driven activities such as to characterize satellite data

Primary gap remedy type: 
Secondary gap remedy type: 
Proposed remedy description: 

Robust assessments of the impacts of geographical spatial and temporal gaps in the availability of reference quality measurement systems are required. GAIA-CLIM has developed studies based on global chemistry models, as well as on advanced statistical techniques, to evaluate these issues for a restricted subset of networks and ECVs (aerosol, ozone, trace gases, temperature and humidity). Similarly, other assessments have been undertaken elsewhere. But, historically, these have variously considered a subset of ECVs and / or networks and undertaken distinct methodological approaches which serve to inhibit their synthesis. Therefore, there is no clear and definitive set of analyses which unambiguously points to where additional observational assets would add most value. As evidenced by the interest in programs like Copernicus and the Fiducial Reference Measurements (FRM) program of European Space Agency (ESA), users are generally interested in the totality of capabilities and not a per network approach. Therefore, what is required is a holistic assessment approach that considers the issue across the full range of both reference-quality networks and ECVs.

In assessing against competing stakeholder needs, a robust means to quantify the cost-benefit trade-offs of different measurement capability expansion options (including both locations and scheduling of measurement strategies) that considered the problem more holistically (across ECVs and networks) would lead to more optimal configurations (or reconfigurations) of networks, recognising that there exists an ecosystem of synergistic and complementary networks. A substantive program that holistically assessed current capabilities and potential expansions / reconfigurations would require the participation of experts in modelling (climate, chemistry, weather), dynamics, statistics, and field measurement techniques. It would also require the engagement of the numerous stakeholders (end-users) of these data and the assessed networks. 


A more robust scientific basis to assessing the impacts of current gaps would greatly aid decision makers in deciding how and where to expand reference-network capabilities 

Measurable outcome of success: 

Availability of a quantified basis to support decision-making.

Expected viability for the outcome of success: 
  • Medium
Scale of work: 
  • Consortium
Time bound to remedy: 
  • Less than 5 years
Indicative cost estimate (investment): 
  • High cost (> 5 million)
Indicative cost estimate (exploitation): 
  • No
Potential actors: 
  • EU H2020 funding
  • Copernicus funding
  • National Meteorological Services
  • WMO
  • ESA, EUMETSAT or other space agency
  • Academia, individual research institutes
  • SMEs/industry
  • National measurement institutes