Remedy 2: Empirical determination of true resolution by comparison with high-resolution data.

Primary gap remedy type: 
Proposed remedy description: 

If temporally coinciding data with higher spatial resolution are available, the true horizontal resolution of a measurement system can be determined empirically by comparing the measurements of the two instruments as obtained on the same scene. This approach was for instance demonstrated by Sihler et al. (2017) for satellite and ground-based DOAS-type measurements. It is empirical in the sense that it does not require extensive modelling of the measurement process. Rather, it requires some basic assumptions on the actual footprint and the sensitivity therein of each measurement, which is then further optimized by comparison with the high-resolution data set, if necessary over a large set of diverse scenes. This approach was also explored within GAIA-CLIM, where it was used to estimate the true vertical resolution and weighting function of temperature and humidity soundings, as described in D3.4.


This remedy addresses the gap partially (since it only deals with the resolution aspects) and it requires an independent, high-resolution data set of sufficient quality.  As such, it is not universally applicable, but it does provide a valuable resolution estimate, independent of any classical metrological modelling 

Measurable outcome of success: 

Publications and technical notes describing for every instrument and measurement type the full 4-D measurement sensitivity, and the errors and uncertainties resulting from the assumption that a measurement can be associated with a nominal geo-location and time. 

Expected viability for the outcome of success: 
  • High
Scale of work: 
  • Single institution
  • Consortium
Time bound to remedy: 
  • Less than 5 years
Indicative cost estimate (investment): 
  • Low cost (< 1 million)
Indicative cost estimate (exploitation): 
  • No
Potential actors: 
  • EU H2020 funding
  • Copernicus funding
  • National funding agencies
  • National Meteorological Services
  • ESA, EUMETSAT or other space agency
  • Academia, individual research institutes